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Svjetlost is the leading ophthalmology Clinic in the Southeastern Europe, offering complete ophthalmic services.

Diabetic macular edema

Diabetic macular edema
Diabetes mellitus is a cronical disease in which blood glucose (sugar) levels are elevated.  More than 450 million people worldwide are estimated to suffer from diabetes.
Diabetic retinopathy is a condition of the eye that causes changes in the blood vessels of the retina.  Altered blood vessels leak fluid or bleed, often leading to changes in vision or blindness.  It usually appears in both eyes.  If left untreated, diabetic retinopathy can damage the retina, and is the most common cause of vision loss in people with diabetes.  It is also a leading cause of blindness in adults in Western countries.

The likelihood of developing diabetic retinopathy, increasing with the duration of the disease, is also an increased incidence in people who have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and in smokers.

It is often the case that diabetic retinopathy does not cause any symptoms before the disease becomes serious.  It is most often presented as:
 -loss of central vision, such as not recognizing letters while reading
 -blurred vision
 -holes or black spots in the field of view
 -flies or various floating turbidity in the field of view caused by bleeding

Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a serious complication of diabetic retinopathy.  A healthy macula provides sharp vision in proximity and allows people to drive, read and recognize faces.

DME is the most common reason why people with diabetic retinopathy lose their vision, and about half of people with diabetic retinopathy get DME.  It's more likely to get DME in the later stages of diabetic retinopathy, but it can happen at any time.

Sometimes vision loss due to DME cannot be reversed, so regular eye background monitoring is necessary to diagnose the disease as early as possible. The diagnosis is made by an ophthalmologist by examination with dilated pupils with additional imaging (fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography). Treatment is performed with anti-VEGF injections and a laser. The most effective prevention of the disease is the control of blood sugar levels and blood pressure, smoking cessation, regular check-ups by an ophthalmologist.