What are the risk factors in the development of glaucoma?
Population aged 45 years or more
Presence of glaucoma in the family
In patients with high blood pressure, hypothyroidism, diabetes
Frequent and long-term treatment with corticosteroids
Greater representation among people of colour due to the anatomical features of the eye
What causes glaucoma?
Elevated eye pressure is considered a major risk factor for developing glaucoma. Normal values of the eye pressure are in the range of 8-21 mmHg. According to some statistics, upper normal value is 22 mmHg or even 24 mmHg. It should be noted that any increase in eye pressure does not necessarily mean that a person has glaucoma. For example, people with ocular hypertension have a value of intraocular pressure over 21 mmHg with no visible glaucoma damage to the optic nerve or changes in the visual field, but have a slightly higher risk of developing glaucoma disease. But changes in the optic nerve and visual field can occur also in normal and reduced values of eye pressure.
Then we talk about the normotensive and hypotensive glaucoma. Glaucoma is a syndrome which means that in addition to the value of eye pressure, there must be present changes in the optic nerve and visual field.